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被动语态的翻译

时间:2010-7-19来源:互联网 作者: guest点击:

  英汉两种语言都有被动语态,但由于表达习惯上的差异,英语往往习惯用被动语态来表达,而汉语则和主动语态来表达。如:That young man cannot be relied upon.译成汉语就应该是“那位年轻人不可信赖”或者“我们不能信任那位年轻人”。如果将此句译成汉语的被动句“那位年轻人不可以被信赖”,译文就会显得很别扭,不符合汉语的表达习惯。由此可见,翻译时经常进行语态的转换是十分必要的。英语中被动语态的使用十分广泛,尤其在考研翻译中,这种现象更为多见。相比之下,汉语被动语态使用的范围要小得多。因此,在英译汉时,大量被动语态的句子需要通过种种方法加以处理,以保证译文通顺流畅地表达原意。英语被动语态的汉译一般有以下几种方法。

  一、译成汉语主动句

  将英语被动语态译成汉语主动语态的方法一般包括以下几种:

  (一)   保存原文主语

  当英语被动句中的主语为无生命的名词,而且句中不出现由by引导的行为主体时,翻译时往往将原句中的主语仍然译成主语。

  The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.

  会议定于四月六日举行。

  Water can be changed from a liquid into a solid.

  水能从液体变成固体。

  When rust is formed , a chemical change has taken place.

  当锈形成的时候,就发生了化学变化。

  (二)   主宾颠倒

  英语中很多被动句子在表示行为主体的词前都加上by, 翻译时可将这类by结构中的宾语译成主语,而将原来的主语译成宾语。

  She was given a new pen by her father.

  她爸爸送给她一支新钢笔。

  Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.

  这种化学反应能放出热和光。

  Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used by us.

  现在我们只能利用一小部分太阳能。

  有时英语被动句中并未出现by结构,而只是代之以一个由介词短语构成的状语。这时仍可采用主宾颠倒的译法,将介词短语中的名词或名词词组译成句子的主语。

  Communication satellites have already been used for living transmission in our country.

  我国已将通讯卫星用于实况转播。

  The numerical data concerned are provided in the next chapter.

  下一章提供了有关的数据资料。

  (三)   增加主语

  有些英语被动句并未在句中出现表示行为主体的词或词组,在翻译这类句子时,可适当增添一些不确定的主语,如“人们”、“有人”、“大家”、“我们”等。

  The issue has not yet been thoroughly explored.

  人们对这一问题迄今尚未进行过彻底的探索。

  She was seen to enter the building about the time the crime was committed.

  有人看见她大致在案发时进入了那座建筑物。

  What we say here will not be long remembered, but what we do here can change the world.

  我们在这里所讲的话,人们不会长久记住。然而我们在这儿所做的事,却能改变世界。

  二、译成汉语无主句

  英语中有些被动句不需要或无法说出行为的主体,因此,翻译时往往译成汉语的无主句。这时,原句中的主语一般译成宾语。

  Measures have been taken to prevent the epidemic from spreading quickly.

  已经采取了措施来防止这种流行病迅速蔓延。

  Water can be shown as containing impurities.

  可以证明,水含有杂质。

  The unpleasant noise must be immediately put an end.

  必须全部停止这种讨厌的噪声。

  三、译成汉语判断句

  有些英语被动句并不突出强调被动动作,而着重对事物的状态、过程和性质等加以描述,其作用与系表结构类似。因此,翻译这种英语被动句,经常采用“是...的”判断句式。

  The decision to attack was not taken lightly.

  进攻的决定

  不是轻易作出的。

  Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

  印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。

  The manuscript was sent to the printer in London a few weeks before the French revolution.

  手稿是在法国革命前几周寄往伦敦付印的。

  The credit system in America was first adopted by Harvard University in 1872.

  美国的学分制是1872年在哈佛大学首先实施的。

  四、译成汉语被动句

  有些英语被动句着重被动的动作,因此,翻译时仍然可以翻译成汉语的被动句,以突出英语原文的被动意义。一般说来,被动句指的是具有被动形式标记的句子。虽然英语被动语态使用范围颇广,但其被动标记却很单一,主要是“be+动词的过去分词”及其变化形式。另一方面,汉语被动句式使用较少,但其被动标记要繁杂得多。汉语中表达被动意义的语言手段主要包括使用“被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为...所、由...来”等等。

  The minister was found to have appropriated government money.

  部长被发现挪用公款。

  He had been fired for refusing to obey orders from the head office.

  他因拒绝接受总公司的命令而被解雇了。

  The schoolboy was knocked down by a minibus when crossing the street.

  那名男生在穿过街道时让一辆小公共汽车撞倒了。

  He was praised by his teacher.

  他得到了老师的表扬。

  Problems should be resolved in good time.

  问题应及时加以解决。

  For a long period to come, most of China’s elderly will continue to be provided for by their families.

  在未来较长的一段时间里,中国的老年人仍旧要由家庭来赡养。

  五、常用被动句型“It+被动语态+that”的翻译

  在这种句型中,it是形式主语,that引导出的是主语从句。汉语译文习惯上采用主动语态,有时还需要增译出泛指性的主语“我们”、“人们”、“大家”、“有人”等等,有时也可译成无主语的汉语句子,并酌情加上汉语介词“根据”或“据”。

  It is considered that bioclimatology is an involved subject.

  有人认为,生物气候学是一门复杂的学科。

  It is stressed that the field of science may be divided into two major areas: natural science and social science.

  有人强调说,科学的范畴可以分成两个主要领域:自然科学和社会科学。

  It should be pointed out that this process is oxidation.

  应该指出,这一过程就是氧化。

  下面是一些常用被动句型的习惯译法:

  It is hoped that... 希望,有人希望

  It is assumed that... 假设,假定

  It is claimed that...  据说,有人主张

  It is believed that... 有人想信,大家相信

  It is reported that... 据报道,据通报

  It is considered that... 人们认为,据估计

  It is said that... 据说,有人说

  It is supposed that... 据推测,人们猜测

  It has been announced that... 已经宣布

  It is asserted that... 有人主张

  It is rumored that... 有人主张

  It is rumored that... 听说,谣传

  It is noticed that... 有人指出,人们注意到

  It is suggested that... 有人建议,建议

  It is reputed that... 人们认为,可以认为

  It is learned that... 据说,据闻,已经查明

  It is demonstrated that... 据证实,已经证明

  It is estimated that... 据估计,有人估计

  It is estimated that... 有人指出,人们指出

  It is pointed out that... 有人推荐,有人建议

  It is proposed that... 有人提出

  It was told that... 有人曾经说

  It was first intended that... 最初就有这样的想法

  It will be said that... 有人会说

  It will be seen from this that...

  由此可见,因此可知

  It was noted above that... 前面已经指出

  It must be admitted that... 必须承认,老实说

  It has been illustrated that... 据图示,据说明

  It is stressed that... 有人强调说

  It is stressed that... 有人列举出了

  It can not be denied that... 无可否认

  It can be said without exaggeration that... 可以毫不夸张的说

  It is sometimes asked that...人们有时会问

  It was felt that... 有人认识到了

  It is universally accepted that... 人们普遍认为

  It is unanimously agreed that... 大家一致同意

  It is alleged that... 据说

  It is calculated that... 据计算

  It has been proved that... 已经证明

  It has been found that... 人们已经发现

  It is still to be hoped that... 我们仍然希望

  It is well-known that... 众所周知,大家都知道

  It should be realized that... 我们应该认识到……


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