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初中英语语法梳理和提高18动词不定式讲解 试题

时间:2010-8-29来源:互联网 作者: guest点击:
  动词不定式
  不定式:to + 动词原形
  知识梳理:提纲挈领,抓住重点和难点!
  动词不定式的基本形式是"to + 动词原形",有时可以不带to。动词不定式(或不定式短语)没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能作谓语。动词不定式仍可保留动词的特点,即可以有自己的宾语和状语。动词不定式同它的宾语或状语构成不定式短语。如:to read the newspaper, to speak at the meeting 等
  动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此在句子中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语:

句法作用
                
作宾语
She wanted to borrowed my radio.
They began to read and write.
    作状语
She went to see her grandma last Sunday .
He came to give us a talk yesterday.
 
作宾语补足语
Lucy asked him to turn off the radio.
She asked me to speak more loudly
Jim told Ling Feng to go home at once .
The father made his son study hard.
  作定语
Have you got anything to say?
I had something to eat this morning .
作主语
To learn a foreign language is not easy.

  注:作主语用的动词不定式常常为it替代,动词不定式(或短语)放在后面。例如:
    It is not easy to learn a foreign language.
    It took us three days to do the work.
  动词不定式的否定形式由"not+动词不定式"构成.  如:
  Tell him not to be late.
  The policeman told the boys not to play in the street.
  4) 不定式省去to的情况: 在感官动词see,watch,look at,hear, listen to,feel和使役动词make,have,let等所接的宾语中(不定式做宾语不足语),不定式应省去to。但是在被动语态中不能省。如:
  Let me listen to you sing the song.
  He watched his son play computer games.
  I saw him run away.------He was seen to run away.
  The boss make the workers work the whole night.----The workers were made to work the whole night.
  5) 动词不定式和疑问词连用
   动词不定式可以和疑问词what ,which, how, where, when 等连用,构成不定式短语。如:
    The question is when to start.
    I dont know where to go .
    He showed me how to use a computer.
    What to do is a big problem.
  例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!
  翻译下列句子,说出句中不定式的作用:
  1. To grow plants is very important.
  2. It is so nice to hear your voice.
  3. My dream is to be a pilot.
  4. He began to read and write at the age of five.
  5. The teacher asked me to speak more loudly.
  6. Tom came to see me last night.
  7. I am glad to see you.
  8.Have you got anything to say?
  9.There are many places to see in China.
  10.I asked him not to open the window.
  11. I dont know what to buy for you.
  12. I saw him dance.
  13. He often helps me clean the room.
  14. They are too shy to speak English.
  15. He was lucky enough to find his watch.
  16. I want you to go there together with me.
  解析:1、To grow plants做主语;2、to hear your voice做主语;3、to be a pilot作表语;4、to read and write作宾语;5、to speak more loudly作宾语补足语;6、to see me作状语;7、to see you作状语;8、to say作定语;9、to see作定语;10、not to open the window作宾语补足语;11、what to buy作宾语;12、dance作宾语补足语(省略to);13、clean the room作宾语补足语(省略to);14、to speak English作状语;15、to find his watch作状语;16、to go there together with me作宾语补足语。
  练习与巩固:熟能生巧,取得好成绩!
  选择最佳答案填空:
  1. Tell him ______ the light.
    A. to turn      B. not to turn on   C. to not turn    D. not to turn
  2. It took us more than two hours _______ the dinner.
    A. prepare     B. preparing      C. to prepare     D. to be prepared
  3. We felt the earth _______.
    A. move       B. moveing       C. to move       D. be moved
  4. The students were made ______ the text ten times.
    A. read        B. reading        C. to read        D. to be read
  5. The chair looks rather hard _______, but in fact it is very comfortable.
    A. to sit        B. to sit on        C. sitting         D. sit
  6. Nobody knows __________next.
    A. what to do     B. to do what     C. which to do    D. how to do
  7. It is very important ______ us ________these words.
    A. to, to remember     B. for, to remember    C. for, remember   D. for, remembering
  8. _______ English well, one must have a lot practice.
    A. For speaking    B. Speaking     C. To speak    D. Speak
  9. Im going to the library ______ the books.
    A. return     B. borrow       C. to return     D. to lend
  10. We went to town _________ some shopping.
    A. doing     B. did     C. to make      D. to do
  11. The funny story _______ me laugh.
    A. make     B. making    C. to make     D. made
  12. After the final exam, I think all the students want _________.
     A. stop to have a rest    B. to stop having a rest  
     C. to stop to have a rest   D. stopping to have a rest
  13. It is very kind _______ you to help me with my housework. It is hard _____me to do all
     the work.
     A. of, for     B. for, of     C. of, to     D. to, for
  14. Many people think it very difficult _______ English.
     A. to say    B. to learn     C. speak    D. for speaking
  15. The teacher asked the students __________ her _______ the word again.
      A. listen to; to read      B. to hear; say  
      C. to listen to; speak    D. to listen to; pronounce
  16.Remember ______ the book here tomorrow.
    A. bring         B. to bring        C. take       D. to take
  17. ---Lets have a rest, shall we?
     --- Not now. I dont want to stop _______ the letter yet.
     A. write       B. to write       C. writing       D. and write
  18. ---This physics problem is too difficult. Can you show me __________, Wang Lin?
     --- Sure.
     A. what to work it out           B. what to work out it
     C. how to work it out          D. how to work out it
  19.--- How can I improve my spoken English?
     --- You have to practise ______ as much as   you can.
     A. speak       B. speaking           C. spoken       D. to speak
  20. --- How about going hiking this weekend?
     --- Sorry. I prefer _______ rather than _______.
     A. to stay at home, go out             B. to go out, stay at home
     C. staying at home, go out             D. going out, stay at home
   1-5 BBACB    6-10   ABCCD     11-15   DCABD     16-20  BCCBA

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